Andreas Serafim


This paper explores how religious argumentation is used in the construction of sexual and social identities, and the impact this may have had on the audiences in Athenian courts. There are only a few references to religion in Attic oratory that point to and undermine an individual’s sexuality and/or social standing. These references fall largely into two related categories: aggressive references that denote morally, socially, legally and sexually condemnable identities; and occupational references that describe the social occupation of people in relation to religious duties and obligations. It has been argued that orators’ use of religious discourse for identity construction is designed to sustain a close bond between the speaker and the audience, while also estranging their opponents from the group.

Pojmovne odrednice

Identity; Impiety; Religious argumentation; Sexuality; Social identity

Ceo tekst:

PDF (English)


Arena, Valentina. 2007. Roman Oratorical Invective. 149–160 in A Companion to Roman Rhetoric, edited by W. Dominik, J. Hall. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Arvanitidou, Zoi, Maria Gasouka. 2013. Construction of Gender through Fashion and Dressing. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 4: 111–115.

Arweck, Elisabeth, Eleanor Nesbitt. 2010. Young People’s Identity Formation in Mixed-Faith Families: Continuity or Discontinuity of Religious Traditions? Journal of Contemporary Religion 25: 67–87.

Barton, Bernadette. 2015. How Like Perceives Like: Gay People on “Gaydar”. Journal of Homosexuality 62: 1615–1637.

Bers, Victor. 1997. Speech in Speech: Studies in Incorporated Oratio Recta in Attic Drama and Oratory. Lanham, Boulder, New York and London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1990 [1980]. The Logic of Practice. Translated from French by R. Nice. Cambridge, England: Polity Books.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1994 [1987]. In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology. Translated from French by M. Adamson. Cambridge, England: Polity Books.

Burkert, Walter. 1993. Bacchic Teletai in the Hellenistic Age in Masks of Dionysus. 259–275 in Masks of Dionysus, edited by Thomas H. Carpenter, Christopher A. Faraone. New York: Cornell University Press.

Cairns, Douglas. 1996. Hybris, Dishonor, and Thinking Big. Journal of Hellenic Studies 116: 1–32.

Carey, Christopher. 1990. Structure and Strategy in Lysias XXIV. Greece & Rome 37: 44–51.

Carey, Christopher. 1995. Rape and Adultery in Athenian Law. The Classical Quarterly 45: 407–417.

Clifford, James. 1988. The Predicament of Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Cohen, David. 1991. Law, Sexuality, and Society: The Enforcement of Morals in Classical Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Conover, Pamela Johnston. 1984. The Influence of Group Identifications on Political Perception and Evaluation. The Journal of Politics 46: 760–785.

Couch, Murray, Hunter Mulcare, Marian Pitts, Anthony Smith, Anne Mitchell. 2008. The Religious Affiliation of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Australians: A Report from the Private Lives Survey. People and Place 16: 1–11.

Csapo, Eric, William J. Slater. 1994. The Context of Ancient Drama. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Davidson, James. 2001. Dover, Foucault and Greek Homosexuality: Penetration and the Truth of Sex. Past & Present 170: 3–51.

Davidson, James. 2007. The Greeks and Greek Love: A Radical Reappraisal of Homosexuality in Ancient Greece. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Davis, Fred. 1992. Fashion, Culture and Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Deng, Francis M. 1995. War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Derrida, Jacques. 1998. Faith and Knowledge: The Two Sources of “Religion” at the Limits of Reason Alone. 1–78 in Religion, edited by Jacques Derrida and Gianni Vattimo. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Dickie, Matthew W. 2001. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World. London and New York: Routledge.

Dover, Kenneth. 1974. Greek Popular Morality in the Time of Plato and Aristotle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dover, Kenneth. 1979. Greek Homosexuality. London: Duckworth.

Dunkle, John. H., Patricia L. Francis. 1990. The role of facial masculinity femininity in the attribution of homosexuality. Sex Roles 23: 157–167.

Eidinow, Esther. 2016. Envy, Poison, & Death. Women on Trial in Classical Athens. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Entwistle, Joanne. 2000. The Fashioned Body: Fashion, Dress and Modern Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity.

Erikson, Erik. H. 1968. Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: W. W. Norton.

Fasoli, Fabio, Anne Maass, Maria Paola Paladino, Simone Sulpizio, (2017). Gay– and Lesbian-Sounding Auditory Cues Elicit Stereotyping and Discrimination. Archives of Sexual Behavior 46: 1261–1277.

Fearon, James D. 1999. What is identity (as we now use the word)? Online article:, last visited July 30, 2019.

Filonik, Jakub. 2013. Athenian Impiety Trials: A Reappraisal. Dike 16: 11–96.

Fisher, Nick. 1992. Hybris: A Study in the Values of Honour and Shame in Ancient Greece. Warminster: Aris and Phillips.

Gagarin, Michael. 1997. Antiphon: The Speeches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gagarin, Michael. 2002. Antiphon the Athenian: Oratory, Law and Justice in the Age of the Sophists. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Gaudio, Rudolf P. 1994. Sounding Gay: Pitch Properties in the Speech of Gay and Straight Men. American Speech 69: 30–57.

Gee, James P. 2000. Identity as an Analytic Lens for Research in Education. Review of Research in Education 25: 99–125.

Haigh, Arthur Elam. 1907. The Attic Theatre. A Description of the Stage and Theatre of the Athenians, and of the Dramatic Performances at Athens. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hall, Edith. 2006. The Theatrical Cast of Athens. Interactions between Ancient Greek Drama and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hall, Jon. 1997. Ethnic identity in Greek antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hall, Stuart. 1989. Ethnicity: Identity and Difference. Radical America 23: 9–20.

Harris, Edward Monroe. 1990. Did the Athenians Regard Seduction as a Worse Crime than Rape? Classical Quarterly 40: 370–377.

Holman, Rebecca H. 1981. Product use as communication source. 106–119 in Review of marketing, edited by Ben M. Enis, Kenneth J. Roering. Chicago: American Marketing Association.

Huddy, Leonie. 2003. Group Identity and Political Cohesion. 511–558 in Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology, edited by Sears, David O., Leonie Huddy, Robert Jervis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

İnaç, Hüsamettin, Feyzullah Ünal (2013). The Construction of National Identity in Modern Times: Theoretical Perspective. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 3: 223–232.

Jenkins, R. 1996. Social Identity. London: Routledge.

Kapparis, Konstantinos. 1999. Apollodoros, Against Neaira [D. 59]. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter.

King, Pamela Ebstyne. 2003. Religion and Identity: The Role of Ideological, Social, and Spiritual Contexts. Applied Developmental Science 7: 196–203.

King, Pamela Ebstyne, Chris J. Boyatzis. (2004). Exploring Adolescent Spiritual and Religious Development: Current and Future Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Applied Developmental Science 8: 2–6.

Lau, Ronald Siu Man. 1989. Individual and Contextual Influences on Group Identification. Social Psychology Quarterly 52: 220–231.

Lee, Jenny J. 2002. Religion and College Attendance: Change Among Students. The Review of Higher Education 25: 369–384.

Lurie, Alison. 1981. The Language of Clothes. London: Heinemann.

MacDowell, Douglas. 2000. Demosthenes, On the False Embassy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Martin, Gunther. 2009. Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maxwell-Stuart, Peter G. 2004. Witchcraft: A History. Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing.

Miller, Arthur H., Patricia Gurin, Gerald Gurin, Oksana Malanchuk. 1981. Group Consciousness and Political Participation. American Journal of Political Science 25: 494–511.

Mol, Hans. 1976. Identity and the Sacred: A Sketch for a New Social-Scientific Theory of Religion. Blackwell: Oxford.

Mol, Hans. 1979. The Identity Model of Religion: How It Compares with Nine other Theories of Religion and How It Might Apply to Japan. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 6: 11–38.

Munson, Benjamin. 2007. The Acoustic Correlates of Perceived Masculinity, Perceived Femininity, and Perceived Sexual Orientation. Language and Speech 50: 125–142.

Munson, Benjamin, Elizabeth C. McDonald, Nancy L. DeBoe, Aubrey R. White. (2006). The Acoustic and Perceptual Bases of Judgments of Women and Men’s Sexual Orientation from Read Speech. Journal of Phonetics 34: 202–240.

Ober, Josiah. 1989. Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens: Rhetoric, Ideology, and the Power of the People. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Pickard-Cambridge, Arthur. 1968. The Dramatic Festivals of Athens. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pulleyn, Simon. 1997. Prayer in Greek Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rieger, Gerulf, Joan A. Linsenmeier, Lorenz Gygax, Steven Garcia, Janelle Michael Bailey. (2010). Dissecting “gGydar”. Accuracy and the Role of Masculinity–Femininity. Archives of Sexual Behavior 39: 124–140.

Rowe, Galen O. 1966. The Portrait of Aeschines in the Oration on the Crown. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 97: 397–406.

Rudhardt, Jean. 1960. La définition du délit d’impiété d’apres la legislation attique. MH 17: 87–105.

Seul Jeffrey R. 1999. Ours Is the Way of God: Religion, Identity, and Intergroup Conflict. Journal of Peace Research 36: 553–568.

Shelp, Scott G. 2002. Gaydar: Visual Detection of Sexual Orientation Among Gay and Straight Men. Journal of Homosexuality 44: 1–14.

Smith, Anthony D. 1987. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford and New York: B. Blackwell.

Tajfel, Henri, John. C. Turner. 1979. An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. 33–37 in The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, edited by William G. Austin, Stephen Worchel. Michigan: Brooks Cole Publishing.

Taylor, Charles. 1994. The Politics of Recognition. 25–73 in Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, edited by Charles Taylor, Amy Gutmann, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Jürgen Habermas, Stephen C. Rockefeller, Michael Walzer, Susan Wolf. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Thomas, Michael C., Charles C. Flippen. 1972. American Civil Religion: An Empirical Study. Social Forces 51: 218–225.

Todd, Stephen C. 1993. The Shape of Athenian Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tseelon, Efrat. 1989. Communicating via Clothes. Unpublished paper. University of Oxford.

Tseelon, Efrat. 1995. The Masque of Femininity. London: SAGE Publications.

Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy Is What States Make of It. International Organization 46: 391–426.

Winkler, John J. 1990. Laying Down the Law: The Oversight of Men’s Sexual Behaviour in Classical Athens. 171–209 in Before Sexuality, edited by David M. Halperin, John J. Winkler, Froma I. Zeitlin. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Worthington, Ian. 1992. A Historical Commentary on Dinarchus: Rhetoric and Conspiracy in Later Fourth-Century Athens. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Yunis, Harvey. 2001. Demosthenes, On the Crown. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Povratni linkovi

  • Trenutno nema povratnih linkova