ARBITRAŽNI UGOVOR I INTERKOMPANIJSKOPRAVNI SPOROVI

Mirko Vasiljević

Sažetak


Afirmacija arbitražnog rešavanja privrednih sporova u oblasti ugovornog prava, i na nacionalnim nivoima (kao nesumnjiv trend, iako različitog stepena) i na međunarodnom nivou, otvorila je pitanje mogućnosti takvog načina rešavanja i interkompanijskopravnih sporova, kako bi se sloboda volje investitora proširila iz domena osnivanja trgovačkih društava i u domen slobode izbora foruma rešavanja mogućih sporova iz brojnih pravnih odnosa te prirode. Ipak, za razliku od ugovora u kojima sloboda volje ima primat u odnosu na njena ograničenja (odnos pravila i izuzetka), sfera interkompanijskopravnih odnosa, iako u osnovi ugovorna po nastanku, u svom funkcionisanju ima naglašenu potrebu da reši sukob ugovornog i kompanijskog prava, kako bi arbitrabilnost tih sporova bila realno moguća, a, s druge strane, sfera kompanijskog prava uvek je više od ugovornog prava u fokusu pažnje nacionalnih javnih poredaka, kao univerzalne ustanove (nezavisno od svog obuhvata) koja predstavlja branu arbitrabilnosti tih sporova.

U ovom članku autor najpre analizira pravnu prirodu konstitutivnih akata privrednih društava (osnivačkog akta i statuta akcionarskog društva) u kontekstu arbitražnog ugovora, na kome se jedino može zasnovati arbitrabilnost interkompanijskopravnih sporova, i zaključuje da njihova ugovorna priroda predstavlja ozbiljnu smetnju za mandatorne arbitraže tih sporova (ako bi ovi akti s ovom klauzulom bili usvojeni većinom glasova), s tim što bi teorija ugovora po pristupu mogla da bude izlaz za podsticaj arbitrabilnosti, ali samo u zatvorenim formama društava, dok u javnom akcionarskom društvu to ne bi bilo moguće, posebno u slučaju neprofesionalnih akcionara, zbog potrebe njihove dodatne zaštite ustanovama potrošačkog prava. Autor, zatim, analizira i sam pojam interkompanijskopravnih sporova i sisteme moguće objektivne arbitrabilnosti (ratione materiae) tih sporova, konstatujući da srpsko arbitražno pravo i kompanijsko pravo, posebno u mogućoj restriktivnoj koncepciji „isključive nadležnosti privrednih sudova“ za te sporove, u najmanju ruku ima ozbiljne razloge za promene u prilog snaženja njihove arbitrabilnosti, uz određena potrebna pojedinačna isključenja, gde dominira interes javnog poretka. Najzad, autor analizira i neke aspekte multistranačke prirode interkompanijskopravnih sporova, posebno u vezi sa javnim akcionarskim društvima, kao moguće proceduralne smetnje za njihovo arbitražno rešavanje, čak i u uslovima njihove eventualne nesporne objektivne arbitrabilnosti.

Pojmovne odrednice


Arbitražni ugovor; Ugovor o osnivanju privrednog društva; Statut akcionarskog društva; Arbitrabilnost; Interkompanijskopravni arbitražni sporovi; Multistranačke arbitraže; „Prinudne“ arbitraže.

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